Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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RS-stocknr. 178-7142
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0,02 €
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RS-stocknr. 170-8059
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NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-236 Surface Mount 250 mW - Single 50 V 6 V - 3 1 3 x 1.4 x 1mm
RS-stocknr. 436-7953
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0,103 €
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NPN 100 mA 45 V SOT-23 (TO-236AB) Surface Mount 250 mW - Single 50 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 1 x 3 x 1.4mm
RS-stocknr. 166-2988
FabrikantnummerBC547B
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0,064 €
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NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW - Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm
RS-stocknr. 803-1083
FabrikantnummerBC547BBU
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0,084 €
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NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW - Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm
RS-stocknr. 761-9828
FabrikantnummerBC547B
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NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW - Single 50 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm
RS-stocknr. 178-7163
FabrikantnummerBC857,215
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0,022 €
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PNP 100 mA 45 V SOT-23 (TO-236AB) Surface Mount 250 mW - Single 50 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 1 x 3 x 1.4mm
RS-stocknr. 484-5100
FabrikantnummerBC857,215
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0,109 €
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PNP 100 mA 45 V SOT-23 (TO-236AB) Surface Mount 250 mW - Single 50 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 1 x 3 x 1.4mm
RS-stocknr. 166-2168
FabrikantnummerKSC2334YTU
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0,858 €
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NPN 7 A 100 V TO-220 Through Hole 40 W - Single 150 V 7 V - 3 1 9.9 x 4.5 x 18.95mm
RS-stocknr. 806-4490
FabrikantnummerKSC2334YTU
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0,907 €
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NPN 7 A 100 V TO-220 Through Hole 40 W - Single 150 V 7 V - 3 1 9.9 x 4.5 x 18.95mm
RS-stocknr. 103-2964
Fabrikantnummer2N3055G
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4,367 €
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NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204AA Through Hole 115 W - Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 2 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm
RS-stocknr. 145-5383
FabrikantnummerPN2222ATA
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0,048 €
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NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS-stocknr. 739-0381
FabrikantnummerPN2222ATA
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0,216 €
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NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS-stocknr. 545-2210
Fabrikantnummer2N3055G
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5,94 €
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NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204 Through Hole 115 W - Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm
RS-stocknr. 168-6075
FabrikantnummerBD139
0,50 €
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NPN 3 A 80 V SOT-32 Through Hole 1.25 W - Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm
RS-stocknr. 314-1823
FabrikantnummerBD139
0,58 €
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NPN 3 A 80 V SOT-32 Through Hole 1.25 W - Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm
RS-stocknr. 169-8620
FabrikantnummerBC557BTF
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0,046 €
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PNP 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW - Single -50 V -5 V 10 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS-stocknr. 124-1348
FabrikantnummerBC557BTA
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0,05 €
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PNP 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW - Single -50 V -5 V 150 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm
RS-stocknr. 803-1138
FabrikantnummerBC557BTF
Fabrikantonsemi
0,143 €
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PNP 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW - Single -50 V -5 V 10 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS-stocknr. 761-3505
FabrikantnummerBC557BTA
Fabrikantonsemi
0,147 €
Each (In a Pack of 100)
Aantal stuks
PNP 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW - Single -50 V -5 V 150 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm